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There are 5 different vegetation zones found in the Rwenzori mountains. These are grassland (1000-2000m), montane forest (2000-3000m), bamboo/mimulopsis zone (2500-3500m), Heather/Rapanea zone (3000-4000m) and the afro-alpine moorland zone (4000-4500m).

At higher altitudes, some plants reach an unusually large size, such as lobelia and groundsels. The vegetation in the Rwenzori mountains is unique to equatorial alpine Africa and the only other places where they might be also found are at Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya.

There are not so many larger animals found in the mountains, due to heavy hunting during the 1970s-1980s. In the forest zone are still elephants and buffalos – but they are rarely seen. Animals that are more often seen are chimpanzees, blue monkeys, Rwenzori colobus monkey, duiker, forest hog hyrax and leopard. The leopard is seen as high as 4000m.

The Rwenzori are one of the most important bird areas in Uganda. Even though there are only 195 species recorded in the park, among them are many rare, threatened and endemic species. The probably most noticeable bird is the Rwenzori Turaco. But also the Francolins, Olive Pigeon, White Necked Raven and Mountain Buzzards are seen in the Range.